depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

PTSD: Impulsive and Risky Behavior

Good morning Trauma Family,

I’d like for us to read a few excerpts from Matthew Tull, PhD. He talks about impulsive behavior and risky behavior. He explains How people with PTSD can have impulsive behaviour.

I know this can be a secretive thing that you hate that you do. It’s okay. We are here to support each other. Especially for the hard stuff.

PTSD and impulsive and risky behaviors. Specifically, given evidence that difficulties in emotion regulation and impulsivity are elevated among individuals with PTSD and associated with greater risk-taking behaviors, these two constructs are proposed as potential mechanisms that may account for the PTSD-impulsive and risky behavior connection.

Many people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) struggle with a variety of impulsive behaviors. When this happens often or seriously disrupts everyday life, impulse control disorders are a likely cause.

Typically the impulsive action results from release of stress that has built to the point where the person can no longer resist it. The immediate sense of relief is only short-term, however. Feelings such as guilt or shame may follow, and repeated impulsive acts can lead to serious problems.

What is an impulsive behavior?

Impulsive behaviors are those that occur quickly without control, planning or consideration of the consequences of that behavior. Impulsive behaviors tend to be connected with immediate positive consequences (for example, relief from emotional pain). However, in the long-term, there may be a number of negative consequences, such as greater emotional distress or regret.

depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

What I’m Up Too…(My Life)

Right now I am attempting to get motivated to clean and move my friends house. Unfortunate my mind is wrapped around writing another blog and writing up an essay for 7 cups Truam forum. I thought the Anxiety Article was spot on. I belive EFT can work. You just have to do it daily. Which can be really tough to remember.

I started reading a little bit about dissociation. I use to do it at work. I’d have full on panic attacks where everything goes blurry, except for the spot you have chosen to fixate on.

Its not scary anymore. I just go with the flow. It works better then forcing it.

depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

The Amazing Headspace App

Headspace is one of my favorite apps. It has meditations for the avarage person. It’s easy to relate too. (ITS FREE) So check it out!

Headspace was founded in May 2010, by Andy Puddicombe and Rich Pierson.[3]Puddicombe is a former Buddhist monk, and Pierson has a background in marketing and new brand development.[4][5]

Puddicombe cut short his university studies in Sports Science at the age of 22, and travelled to Asia to become a Buddhist monk.[6][7] Over the course of ten years, his meditation training took him to Nepal, India, Burma, Thailand, Australia and Russia. He was fully ordained at a Tibetan Monastery in the Himalayas.[8] In 2004 he returned to the UK on a mission “to make meditation accessible, relevant and beneficial to as many people as possible”.[9] It was whilst running a meditation clinic in London that he met his future business partner, Rich Pierson. “We both thought, how could we present meditation in a way that our friends would genuinely give it a try? Rich had all these creative skills, and I had the experience as a monk. I think that was the light bulb moment with Headspace, the coming together of those two backgrounds”.[10]

Headspace began as an events company, holding mindfulness talks in and around London.[11] Demand from attendees for a way to share these techniques led to Puddicombe and Pierson looking into developing a mobile app, with the first version of the Headspace app launching in 2012.[12] Headspace now employs over 50 staff, working between the company HQ in Los Angeles and London, UK.[13]

depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

*Shine* Getting Grounded

*Buys all the succulents* *Still doesn’t feel cozy* 🌵

Secret: feeling at home with ourselves = true coziness, Jen.

Want to learn more or try it out?

Experts say that we mentally spend lots of time in the past (‘why did that happen?’) and the future (‘what if this happens?’).

Our home, though, is in the here and now. 🏠

Today, use your breath to get grounded in the *now.*

Try this: Exhale and count ‘1,’ breathe in, then on your next exhale count ‘2.’ Count up to 5, then start again.

Cozy up to the present moment, Jen—then, cherish that succulent. 😉

P.s. How ‘turtling up’ can help you feel more at peace 🐢

depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

18 Ways To Calm Your Anxious Mind

18 Ways To Calm Your Anxious Mind
May 10, 2018 / Mental health /
By Tia Harding
You have one thought of worry.

Then another pops up.

And another.
O
Before you know it, your mind is overrun by anxious thoughts.

Anxiety sucks!

It can stop you doing things you enjoy.

And get in the way of living your life to the full!

What’s good to know is that there are ways you can calm your anxious mind.

And even enable you to overcome your anxiety with some practice.

Yes you read that right…

You can overcome your anxiety.

I know what you are thinking, “That can’t be true”

But trust me, it is.

I overcome 20 years of depression and anxiety with these exact tools I am going to list below.

So, if you want to learn how I did it, read on.
Calming An Anxious Mind
So, there are many ways you can calm your anxious mind.

But today I am going to list my top 18.

These are what I personally used in anxious and depressed times to calm and overcome my thoughts.

And I still use them all today.

Why?

Because they are all ways to keep your mind happy and healthy.

And I am all about being happy and healthy, every day!

So, let’s dive in and take a look at my top 18 ways to calm your anxious mind.

#1 Walk
Take a walk and take in your surroundings. Ideally get out in nature. Hear the sounds, look at the beauty. Leave your phone at home, stroll and relax.

#2 Unplug
Social media definitely adds to anxiety. Constantly looking at the ‘perfect’ this and the ‘perfect’ that. Switch your phone off, even take a digital detox for a few days.

#3 Journal
tiaharding.com
Let go of all your thoughts onto the paper. Journaling is an amazing tool for letting go and calming the mind. Everything you are thinking put it on the page.

Related Post: Journal Prompts for Depression and Anxiety.

#4 Breathe
Take a few minutes to stop and breathe. Yes notice your breath. Take deep breaths in through your nose and out through your mouth. Sit and breathe until you feel calmer.

#5 Affirmations
Positive affirmations are amazing all round, but especially at time of worry. Whatever you are thinking, reverse it into the positive and repeat the positive over and over.

Related Post: Positive Affirmations for a Positive Mindset.

#6 Gratitude
Make a gratitude list of everything you have that you are grateful for. Being grateful calms the mind and brings you into reality.

Related Post: How Gratitude Improves Mental Health.

#7 Colour
Pick up some pencils and paper and colour or draw. Even grab a mindful colouring book. The act of colouring brings your mind into the present moment and task at hand.

#8 Essential Oils
Using essential oils to calm the mind and body is amazing. Not only do they smell great but they really work. My favourites are ylang ylang and rose.

#9 Music
tiaharding.com
Put on your favorite music, dance and sing like no one is watching. Alternatively, put on some relaxing nature sounds and sit back and relax.

#10 Express
Express the emotions you are feeling. Cry, shout, scream, stomp, yes really let it out and let it go. My favorite is to cry when I need to and scream into a pillow. It really works.

#11 Tea
Drink a hot cup of herbal tea. The heat of the tea takes your mind away from your thoughts. So sit back and look out of the window and relax.

#12 Bath
Take a hot salt bath, I love Epsom or himalayan salt. The salt and the heat of the water relaxes the mind and the body.

#13 Nap
If you are feeling worn out by your anxious mind, take a nap and sleep it off. Anxiety can often keep you up at night and drain you, so take the rest you need.

#14 Read
Read your favorite book or even better a self-help book for the mind. Learn about your anxiety and what you can do to help yourself.

#15 Meditate
tiaharding.com
Take a few minutes and meditate to a guided meditation. Guided meditation is best when anxious as you can focus on the person’s voice that is guiding you. Meditation has so many amazing benefits and reducing stress, anxiety and depression is one of them.

Related Post: Meditation for Depression and Anxiety.

#16 Exercise
Exercise is a great way to calm your mind. Not only that, but exercise is great for your health. My favorite exercise is yoga, running and HIIT.

Related Post: Yoga For Depression and Anxiety.

#17 EFT
This may be a new one for you but EFT (emotional freedom techniques) also known as tapping, is an amazing tool to calm and overcome anxiety. It can be used for a variety of ailments as it releases blocked energy in the body.

You can learn more here from The Tapping Solution.

#18 Mindfulness
Mindfulness is a great tool to calm the mind and bring you into the present moment. It enables you to slow down and see the reality of what is actually happening.

Mindfulness is so powerful that regular practice can see your anxiety diminish.

How?

Well, mindfulness teaches you how to recognize, observe and let go of your thoughts without them affecting your mood or behaviours.

I know all about the power that mindfulness holds, as I used it to overcome my chronic depression and anxiety.

It’s been 2 years now since I have healed my mind.

But I still use mindfulness to this day!

Why?

Because it enables me to appreciate life to the full.

And I get to choose my thoughts and how I feel each day.

I am so passionate about mindfulness that I created a guide, Free Your Mind, which teaches you how to create a positive mindset to live the happy life you dream of.

depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

*Shine* I know I’m #blessed, but how do I feel it on the reg?’

‘I know I’m #blessed, but how do I feel it on the reg?’ Today, pair gratitude with a daily cue (*Netflix is loading*) to make it a habit.

Want to learn more or try it out?

You have *a lot* going for you, Jen. But realistically? We all forget how #blessed we are.

Today, pair gratitude with a daily cue.

You have *a lot* going for you, Jen. But realistically? We all forget how #blessed we are.

Today, pair gratitude with a daily cue.

A hack to creating a new habit: setting a *cue* to remind us to do the dang thing.

And we can set *new* cues to nudge us into something, like a daily gratitude practice.

#Mentalhealth #PTSD #Anxiety #recovery #bipolar2 #bipolar #wellness #recoveryisworthit #selfregulation #bpd #depression #selfcarematters #selflove

depression, PTSD, Panic Attack's

Impulsivity

Written by an unknown source.

Impulsive behavior and unfiltered speech can leave a wake of hurt, angry and bewildered people. Then it’s time to deal with the guilt and regrets, while hoping that apologies and making amends will repair any rifts.

Impulsivity can be defined as….

A problem with emotional or behavioral self-control.
Common causes of this symptom
Impulsivity can have causes that aren’t due to underlying disease. Examples include normal individual variation or substance abuse.

Bipolar disorder
A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs.

Symptoms may include
Impulsivity
Agitated depression
Manic episode
Very common

Written by Michael F Green.

Impulsive risk taking contributes to deleterious outcomes among clinical populations. Indeed, pathological impulsivity and risk taking are common in patients with serious mental illness, and have severe clinical repercussions including novelty seeking, response disinhibition, aggression, and substance abuse. Thus, the current study seeks to examine self-reported impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and performance-based behavioral risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants included 68 individuals with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Self-reported impulsivity was elevated in the bipolar group compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, who did not differ from each other. On the risk-taking task, schizophrenia patients were significantly more risk averse than the bipolar patients and controls. Aside from the diagnostic group differences, there was a significant effect of antipsychotic (AP) medication within the bipolar group: bipolar patients taking AP medications were more risk averse than those not taking AP medications. This difference in risk taking because of AP medications was not explained by history of psychosis. Similarly, the differences in risk taking between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were not fully explained by AP effects. Implications for clinical practice and future research are

INTRODUCTION
Impulsiveness is a clinical feature of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Najt et al, 2007; Ouzir, 2013). Broadly, impulsivity refers to a predisposition toward unplanned reactions without consideration of consequences (Moeller et al, 2001) and can include risky decision making, self-reported high-risk attitudes, poor response inhibition, and rapid decision making (Courtney et al, 2012). It is also associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with bipolar and schizophrenia including substance abuse (Dervaux et al, 2010; Gut-Fayand et al, 2001), suicidal acts (Gut-Fayand et al, 2001), and aggression (Perroud et al, 2011). However, the role that impulsivity has in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are poorly understood.

Bipolar disorder is often characterized by impulsive behavior and increased tendency to work toward a reward, often without sufficient planning (Johnson et al, 2012). Although risky-impulsive behavior is a diagnostic criterion for mania (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and bipolar patients consistently show abnormalities on self-report measures of impulsivity, they do not consistently show deficits on behavioral tasks that require planning and forethought (Holmes et al, 2009; Lombardo et al, 2012). These differences may reflect the multi-faceted nature of impulsivity (Dalley and Roiser, 2012), or the measurement tools used to assess the construct (Ouzir, 2013).Finally, some of the mixed findings in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia regarding impulsivity and risk taking may be attributable to the types of medications patients are taking. The neurochemical basis of impulsivity and risk taking involves dopaminergic, serotonergic, and other neurotransmitter systems (Pattij and Vanderschuren, 2008; Dursun et al, 2000), and these systems are affected by antipsychotic (AP) medications. Some studies find a reduction in impulsiveness associated with AP medications (Spivak et al, 1997), whereas others find no such effect in psychotic samples (Ahn et al, 2011; Heerey et al, 2007; Shurman et al, 2005). Thus, it is important to consider the role of AP medications on measures of impulsivity and risk taking.

This is one of the first studies to examine both self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The study had two goals. The primary goal was to conduct a careful analysis of impulsivity using multiple approaches across three groups: bipolar disorder patients, schizophrenia patients, and healthy controls. The secondary goal was to compare subgroups of bipolar disorder patients who differed in terms of AP medications and history of psychosis on measures of impulsivity and risk taking.

METHODS
Participants
The total sample (N=142) included 68 participants with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Patients were recruited from outpatient treatment clinics at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (GLA), and from board-and-care residences in Los Angeles. Inclusion criteria for patients included DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I, bipolar II, or schizophrenia; diagnoses were confirmed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I; First et al, 2002). Exclusion criteria for patients included substance dependence in the last 6 months, substance abuse in the last month, and IQ <70. Control participants were recruited through internet advertisements and screened with the SCID-I and SCID-II for Axis II disorders (First et al, 1997). Exclusion criteria for control participants included history of schizophrenia, other psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, recurrent major depressive disorder, substance dependence, or abuse in the past month, history of psychotic or bipolar disorder among first-degree relatives, or any of the following Axis-II disorders: avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, or borderline personality disorder. Exclusion criteria for the entire sample included: history of head injury, identified neurological condition, or lack of English proficiency to understand consent and testing procedures. Patients were considered to be clinically stable, indicated by at least a month since the last mood episode, no medication changes in the previous 6 weeks, no inpatient hospitalization in the previous 3 months, and no changes in housing in the previous 2 months.

Of the 68 patients with bipolar disorder, 46 were diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 22 with bipolar II disorder. Of the patients with bipolar I, 15 had a history of psychosis and 31 were diagnosed with bipolar I without psychosis. Forty of the bipolar patients were taking AP medications at the time of the study, 28 were not taking AP medications, and 11 were taking lithium or divalproex sodium but not AP medication. Thirty-seven out of thirty-nine schizophrenia patients were taking AP medications at the time of testing.

All participants gave written informed consent after receiving a detailed explanation of study procedures, according to procedures approved by the Institutional Review Boards at UCLA and GLA.

Measures
Clinical ratings Patients’ psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the expanded 24-item version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS; Ventura et al, 1993), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1960), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS; Young et al, 1978). All clinical interviewers were trained through the Treatment Unit of the Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 22 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center. SCID raters were trained to a minimum kappa of 0.75 and symptom raters were trained to a minimum ICC of 0.80Written by an unknown source.

Impulsive behavior and unfiltered speech can leave a wake of hurt, angry and bewildered people. Then it’s time to deal with the guilt and regrets, while hoping that apologies and making amends will repair any rifts.

Impulsivity can be defined as….

A problem with emotional or behavioral self-control.
Common causes of this symptom
Impulsivity can have causes that aren’t due to underlying disease. Examples include normal individual variation or substance abuse.

Bipolar disorder
A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs.

Symptoms may include
Impulsivity
Agitated depression
Manic episode
Very common

Written by Michael F Green.

Impulsive risk taking contributes to deleterious outcomes among clinical populations. Indeed, pathological impulsivity and risk taking are common in patients with serious mental illness, and have severe clinical repercussions including novelty seeking, response disinhibition, aggression, and substance abuse. Thus, the current study seeks to examine self-reported impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and performance-based behavioral risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants included 68 individuals with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Self-reported impulsivity was elevated in the bipolar group compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, who did not differ from each other. On the risk-taking task, schizophrenia patients were significantly more risk averse than the bipolar patients and controls. Aside from the diagnostic group differences, there was a significant effect of antipsychotic (AP) medication within the bipolar group: bipolar patients taking AP medications were more risk averse than those not taking AP medications. This difference in risk taking because of AP medications was not explained by history of psychosis. Similarly, the differences in risk taking between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were not fully explained by AP effects. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

Keywords: schizophrenia, psychopharmacology, behavioral sciences, dopamine
INTRODUCTION
Impulsiveness is a clinical feature of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Najt et al, 2007; Ouzir, 2013). Broadly, impulsivity refers to a predisposition toward unplanned reactions without consideration of consequences (Moeller et al, 2001) and can include risky decision making, self-reported high-risk attitudes, poor response inhibition, and rapid decision making (Courtney et al, 2012). It is also associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with bipolar and schizophrenia including substance abuse (Dervaux et al, 2010; Gut-Fayand et al, 2001), suicidal acts (Gut-Fayand et al, 2001), and aggression (Perroud et al, 2011). However, the role that impulsivity has in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are poorly understood.

Bipolar disorder is often characterized by impulsive behavior and increased tendency to work toward a reward, often without sufficient planning (Johnson et al, 2012). Although risky-impulsive behavior is a diagnostic criterion for mania (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and bipolar patients consistently show abnormalities on self-report measures of impulsivity, they do not consistently show deficits on behavioral tasks that require planning and forethought (Holmes et al, 2009; Lombardo et al, 2012). These differences may reflect the multi-faceted nature of impulsivity (Dalley and Roiser, 2012), or the measurement tools used to assess the construct (Ouzir, 2013).Finally, some of the mixed findings in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia regarding impulsivity and risk taking may be attributable to the types of medications patients are taking. The neurochemical basis of impulsivity and risk taking involves dopaminergic, serotonergic, and other neurotransmitter systems (Pattij and Vanderschuren, 2008; Dursun et al, 2000), and these systems are affected by antipsychotic (AP) medications. Some studies find a reduction in impulsiveness associated with AP medications (Spivak et al, 1997), whereas others find no such effect in psychotic samples (Ahn et al, 2011; Heerey et al, 2007; Shurman et al, 2005). Thus, it is important to consider the role of AP medications on measures of impulsivity and risk taking.

This is one of the first studies to examine both self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The study had two goals. The primary goal was to conduct a careful analysis of impulsivity using multiple approaches across three groups: bipolar disorder patients, schizophrenia patients, and healthy controls. The secondary goal was to compare subgroups of bipolar disorder patients who differed in terms of AP medications and history of psychosis on measures of impulsivity and risk taking.

METHODS
Participants
The total sample (N=142) included 68 participants with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Patients were recruited from outpatient treatment clinics at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (GLA), and from board-and-care residences in Los Angeles. Inclusion criteria for patients included DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I, bipolar II, or schizophrenia; diagnoses were confirmed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I; First et al, 2002). Exclusion criteria for patients included substance dependence in the last 6 months, substance abuse in the last month, and IQ <70. Control participants were recruited through internet advertisements and screened with the SCID-I and SCID-II for Axis II disorders (First et al, 1997). Exclusion criteria for control participants included history of schizophrenia, other psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, recurrent major depressive disorder, substance dependence, or abuse in the past month, history of psychotic or bipolar disorder among first-degree relatives, or any of the following Axis-II disorders: avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, or borderline personality disorder. Exclusion criteria for the entire sample included: history of head injury, identified neurological condition, or lack of English proficiency to understand consent and testing procedures. Patients were considered to be clinically stable, indicated by at least a month since the last mood episode, no medication changes in the previous 6 weeks, no inpatient hospitalization in the previous 3 months, and no changes in housing in the previous 2 months.

Of the 68 patients with bipolar disorder, 46 were diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 22 with bipolar II disorder. Of the patients with bipolar I, 15 had a history of psychosis and 31 were diagnosed with bipolar I without psychosis. Forty of the bipolar patients were taking AP medications at the time of the study, 28 were not taking AP medications, and 11 were taking lithium or divalproex sodium but not AP medication. Thirty-seven out of thirty-nine schizophrenia patients were taking AP medications at the time of testing.

All participants gave written informed consent after receiving a detailed explanation of study procedures, according to procedures approved by the Institutional Review Boards at UCLA and GLA.

Measures
Clinical ratings Patients’ psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the expanded 24-item version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS; Ventura et al, 1993), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1960), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS; Young et al, 1978). All clinical interviewers were trained through the Treatment Unit of the Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 22 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center. SCID raters were trained to a minimum kappa of 0.75 and symptom raters were trained to a minimum ICC of 0.80.